Monday, August 19, 2019

Chlamydia Essay -- essays research papers

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most widespread and infamous bacterial infection affecting the genital tract. Not only is it quite common in developed countries but an increase in cases has sprung up in developing countries as well. In the United States, there is a 4 million per year case rate of chlamydia which costs the US approximately $2 billion dollars in consequences and treatments. Persons who suffer from chlamydia in underdeveloped countries and have no means of seeking treatment may become blind because chlamydia has the potential of causing trachoma. It is becoming a global interest to control and restrain this budding disease. In order to do so it is essential to recognize the symptoms of chlamydia, diagnose the victim, and provide treatment immediately.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Observing symptoms of chlamydia is often a difficult process considering that 75% of females and 50% of males are asymptomatic; for those who are infected and do show symptoms, there are obvious signs directly connected to the chlamydia bacterium. In infected females, purulent discharge and a burning sensation while urinating are common indicators. The irregular discharge can be mistaken for normal vaginal discharge making this indicator slightly less conspicuous. These signs are caused by the bacterium’s concentration on the cervix and urethra and is classified as an acute endocervical infection. Other signs in the female are spotting between menstrual periods, fever, and severe back and abdominal pain. In males, burning sensation and discharge from the penis also occur. In addition, pain around the opening of the penis as well as soreness of the testicles can be observed. These symptoms occur from epididymitis. The contraction of chlamydia through anal pe netration can lead to rectal discharge, bleeding, and pain. If symptoms appear the next stage is to verify that the symptoms are directly related to the chlamydia bacterium. There are a number of methods in the process of diagnosing a potential case of the chlamydia trachomatis bacteria. Classic methods of diagnosis have been centered on cell culture; the â€Å"culture era† began in the 1970s and proceeded into the late 1980s. Cell culture â€Å"was the inoculation of clinical material into animals, embryonated hens eggs or tissue culture cells and the demonstration of characteristic chlamydial inclusions.† Minor complication... ...s were tested for chlamydia through IgG antibodies and the PCR process. The study concluded that IgG antibodies in males were associated with lower pregnancy rates and a higher IgG antibodies count in the woman. There is a higher occurrence of IgG antibodies in the infertile couples than in fertile couples. After some treatment, the odds ratio of not successfully completing pregnancy with the male being chlamydia trachomatis positive is 2.6. In those couples that were not treated, the odds ratio is much higher at about 3.9. The study deems it â€Å"cost-beneficial† to screen infertile couples by means of the PCR tests because it is been deemed â€Å"cost-effective† in places where the chlamydia bacteria was very common. The chlamydia trachomatis disease is on the rise so further studies and research is quite necessary to maintain a tight grip on this epidemic. Innovative diagnosis will assist persons infected with chlamydia to identify the disease in early stages to help reduce further complications and cost concerns. Advancement in treatments will evidently be beneficial for those with acute and chronic stages of chlamydia which will also reduce costs as well as grief to those infected.

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